Τετάρτη, 22 Νοεμβρίου 2017

From Africa about the Entry of the Most Holy Mother of God into the Temple


Commemorated on November 21
 
"With the blessing of His Grace Innocentios Byakatonda, the parish of Twelve Apostles in Rwamagana, in Eastern Province of Rwanda, has celebrated the Feast of The Entrance of the Mother of God in Holy Temple, this Tuesday 21st November 2017." (More here)

Orthodox Metropolis of Zambia and Malawi

According to Holy Tradition, the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple took place in the following manner. The parents of the Virgin Mary, Saints Joachim and Anna, praying for an end to their childlessness, vowed that if a child were born to them, they would dedicate it to the service of God.

When the Most Holy Virgin reached the age of three, the holy parents decided to fulfill their vow. They gathered together their relatives and acquaintances, and dressed the All-Pure Virgin in Her finest clothes. Singing sacred songs and with lighted candles in their hands, virgins escorted Her to the Temple (Ps. 44/45:14-15). There the High Priest and several priests met the handmaiden of God. In the Temple, fifteen high steps led to the sanctuary, which only the priests and High Priest could enter. (Because they recited a Psalm on each step, Psalms 119/120-133/134 are called “Psalms of Ascent.”) The child Mary, so it seemed, could not make it up this stairway. But just as they placed Her on the first step, strengthened by the power of God, She quickly went up the remaining steps and ascended to the highest one. Then the High Priest, through inspiration from above, led the Most Holy Virgin into the Holy of Holies, where only the High Priest entered once a year to offer a purifying sacrifice of blood. Therefore, all those present in the Temple were astonished at this most unusual occurrence.

After entrusting their child to the Heavenly Father, Joachim and Anna returned home. The All-Holy Virgin remained in the quarters for virgins near the Temple. According to the testimony of Holy Scripture (Exodus 38; 1 Kings 1: 28; Luke 2: 37), and also the historian Josephus Flavius, there were many living quarters around the Temple, in which those who were dedicated to the service of God dwelt.


 
Icon from Rwanda

The earthly life of the Most Holy Theotokos from Her infancy until She was taken up to Heaven is shrouded in deep mystery. Her life at the Jerusalem Temple was also a secret. “If anyone were to ask me,” said Saint Jerome, “how the Most Holy Virgin spent the time of Her youth, I would answer that that is known to God Himself and the Archangel Gabriel, Her constant guardian.”

But there are accounts in Church Tradition, that during the All-Pure Virgin’s stay at the Temple, She grew up in a community of pious virgins, diligently read the Holy Scripture, occupied Herself with handicrafts, prayed constantly, and grew in love for God. From ancient times, the Church has celebrated the Feast of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple. Indications that the Feast was observed in the first centuries of Christianity are found in the traditions of Palestinian Christians, which say that the holy Empress Helen (May 21) built a church in honor of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple.


 
Photo from Madagascar

Saint Gregory of Nyssa, in the fourth century, also mentions this Feast. In the eighth century Saints Germanus and Tarasius, Patriarchs of Constantinople, delivered sermons on the Feast of the Entry.

The Feast of the Entry of the Most Holy Theotokos into the Temple foretells God’s blessing for the human race, the preaching of salvation, the promise of the coming of Christ.


Apolytikion (closing hymn) for the Feast of the Entrance (here)

Today is the prelude of God’s pleasure and the proclamation of man’s salvation. The Virgin is clearly made manifest in the temple of God and foretells Christ to all. Let us also cry out to her with mighty voice, “Hail, fulfillment of the Creator’s dispensation.

See also

Entrance of the Theotokos Resource Page (November 21)
St German of the Constantinople about the Entrance of Theotokos 
The Nativity of Theotokos (September 8), a day of universal joy 
Mother of God (Virgin Mary), Orthodox Church and African peoples (& Why the Orthodox Honor Mary)
Bikira Maria, Mama wa Mungu
Maria in die Ortodoksie

Theotokos (tag in our blog)


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Τρίτη, 21 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Fr Themi Adamopoulo, talk al little about his trip from Atheist to Christian...


In the Orthodox Vineyard of Africa


This is "2017 Bible Study - From Aithiest, Rock n Roll, Teacher, Monk to Missionary" by P4k Videos on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people…
vimeo.com

***
Sydney: "Αn opportunity to promote our Mission in Sierra Leone..."

here

"At the St. George Greek Orthodox parish Hall (Rose Bay - Sydney) panel discussion last Sunday with Fr. Gerasimos and Mary Koustas (Effie). It was a full house. We had an opportunity to promote our Mission in Sierra Leone."

Δευτέρα, 20 Νοεμβρίου 2017

A VOICE FROM ZIMBABWE & ANGOLA ABOUT THE PARABLE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN


Metropolitan of Zimbabwe & Angola Seraphim
12 November 2017

Orthodox Archbishopric of Zimbabwe


Referring to the parable of the good Samaritan, α lawyer asked Jesus Christ what he should do in his life to gain eternal life. Jesus reminds him of the commandments of the Old Testament, that you must "love God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your mind and your neighbor as yourself. "
Then the same lawyer, who was responsible for teaching the content of the Old Testament, asks one more question to Jesus, “who is my neighbor”, that is, “his neighbor, whom he must love and care for him, as himself. Jesus begins to tell him the parable of the good Samaritan, to help him realize who is worthy of the Kingdom of Heaven.
Once, a man was traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell among thieves who stripped him, beat him badly, and left him seriously injured, full of wounds, sure he would soon die from the fatal injuries that they had caused him. We see the crime happening all the time, woe to the innocent, who must be vigilant in order to protect themselves from the atheist criminals, who are not only thieves, but are brutal and dangerous murderers. Being beaten badly, the innocent family man, half dead awaited his end.
Today we might say , why does God not have responsible people overseeing the injustices perpetrated agains the defenseless and innocent and lead those responsible to justice, or, even an innocent child, choked with injustice in his imagination say, “why were his children not there to kill their father’s attackers: On the one hand, the emotion of justice and on the other hand violence, leading others to violence in rage and to their own destruction.

Murderers are not only those who take away the life of someone unfairly and arbitrarily, but also all those who in authority allow the injustice and brutality to go unpunished thus causing public anger, that can lead into uncontrollable violent attacks aimed at the perpetrators.

Finally, in the parable, reference is made not to the bandits, but to the public opinion, to the people who happen to witness the tragedy of an innocent man who unjustly accepts the attack by the robbers and is full of wounds, on the brink of death. The first one to see him, was a clergyman who indifferently passed by, the second, a Levite, a clergy's’ assistant,, who again like the clergyman, uncompassionate distanced himself from him. Eventually, the third person who saw him, was a Samaritan, a man considered by the clergy a good for nothing sinner. Regardless, the Samaritan stopped, bandaged his wounds and poured oil and wine on him and set him on his own donkey, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. On the next day, when the Samaritan departed he paid the inn keeper and told the innkeeper to take care of him and upon his return he would repay the Innkeeper.
The Fathers of the Church give many interpretations to the parable of the good Samaritan, saying that the Good Samaritan is Christ who saves the dead man from his sins with his crucified death. The Inn symbolizes the Church which saves the man. However, the primary of these interpretations are those of the words that Jesus Christ Himself spoke. Seeing every person that we meet in our lives, as our neighbor and to respond to their needs as we would to those of the people we love, such as our children, our parents, our grandparents, our uncles, our aunts and our friends, our husbands, the Greek, the Orthodox.
Once, one of our own, at dawn on a Sunday, a very holy man would go to the church where the Late Father Spyridon Rados preached, to take bread “prosforo” and oil to light the kandelia. He would come from very far, as he did not live in Springs, he had made a promise “tama” to St Basil. He was very faithful. One morning the Late `Spyridonos’ son had had a terrible accident and lay bleeding on the road; in the end bleeding to death. This very faithful man would recall “when I was going to Church very early one morning I saw a very bad accident and a young man bleeding, if I knew he was the son of Papa Spyridon, I would have taken him to hospital”
Finally, in the eyes of God we are all his children, and when we help our fellow man, whether they are related to us or unknown, whether they are black, white, Greeks, immigrants, etc we help the children of God.
Every person that we meet and has our need is our neighbor.
And those who treat their neighbors unjustly and ignore them, they do that to the children of God. They are for instance …religious hypocrites…. Even though they are clerics and Levites.


See also

A voice from Zambia & Malawi about the Parable of the Good Samaritan!  

The Heresy of Racism  
The Kingdom of Heaven, where racial discrimination has no place 
Where Do We Go From Here: A Reflection from the BSMB Conference
 
An african orthodox christian voice about the Parable of the Sower
Orthodox Church & Capitalism: Orthodox Fathers of Church on poverty, wealth and social justice
Is capitalism compatible with Orthodox Christianity?
Grace and “the Inverted Pyramid” 

Fathers of Church & Capitalism : Interest, Usury, Capitalism
 

"What is the meaning of the Parable of the Rich Fool?"



Orthodox Metropolis of Zambia and Malawi

The Parable of the Rich Fool can be found in Luke 12:13–21. The key to understanding this parable is in verse 15 (and later summarized in verse 21). Luke 12:15 says, “Take care, and be on your guard against all covetousness, for one's life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.” Jesus says this to the man who asked Him to arbitrate between him and his brother. In ancient times, the firstborn was guaranteed a double portion of the family inheritance. More than likely, the brother who was addressing Jesus was not the firstborn and was asking for an equal share of the inheritance. Jesus refuses to arbitrate their dispute and gets to the heart of the matter: Covetousness! Jesus warns this person, and all within earshot, that our lives are not to be about gathering wealth. Life is so much more than the “abundance of possessions.”
Jesus proceeds to tell the man the Parable of the Rich Fool. This person was materially blessed by God; his land “produced plentifully” (verse 16). As God continued to bless the man, instead of using his increase to further the will of God, all he was interested in was managing his increase and accumulating his growing wealth. So the man builds larger barns in place of the existing ones and starts planning an early retirement. Unbeknownst to him, this was his last night on planet earth. Jesus then closes the story by saying, “So is the one who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God.”
So the point of the Parable of the Rich Fool is twofold. First, we are not to devote our lives to the gathering and accumulation of wealth. There is an interesting point made in the parable. God says to the man in the story, “And the things you have prepared, whose will they be?” This echoes the thought expressed in Ecclesiastes 2:18 (“I hated all my toil in which I toil under the sun, seeing that I must leave it to the man who will come after me”). You see it all the time in people who are singularly devoted to the accumulation of wealth. What happens to all that wealth when they die? It gets left behind to others who didn’t earn it and won’t appreciate it. Furthermore, if money is your master, that means God is not (Matthew 6:24).

Orthodox Christians in Rwanda (from here)
 
The second point of the Parable of the Rich Fool is the fact that we are not blessed by God to hoard our wealth to ourselves. We are blessed to be a blessing in the lives of others, and we are blessed to build the kingdom of God. The Bible says if our riches increase, we are not to set our hearts upon them (Psalm 62:10). The Bible also says there is one who gives freely and grows all the richer (Proverbs 11:24). Finally, the Bible says we are to honor God with the first fruits of our increase (Proverbs 3:9–10). The point is clear; if we honor God with what He has given us, He will bless with more so that we can honor Him with more. There is a passage in 2 Corinthians that summarizes this aptly (2 Corinthians 9:6–15). In that passage Paul says, “And God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that having all contentment in all things at all times, you may abound in every good work.” We are blessed by God, so we can in turn “abound in every good work” and be a blessing in the lives of others. So, if God has blessed you with material wealth “set not your heart on it” and “be rich toward God.” That is the message of the Parable of the Rich Fool.

The Parable

Orthodox Metropolis of Zambia and Malawi


Luke 12:16-21
16 And He spoke a parable unto them, saying, “The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully. 17 And he thought within himself, saying, ‘What shall I do, because I have no room to store my fruits?’
18 And he said, ‘This will I do. I will pull down my barns and build greater, and there will I store all my fruits and my goods.
19 And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years. Take thine ease; eat, drink, and be merry.’
20 But God said unto him, ‘Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee. Then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided?’
21 So is he that layeth up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God.”
 

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От Луки 12:16-21
16 И Он рассказал им притчу:
– Земля одного богатого человека принесла ему хороший урожай. 17 «Что мне делать? Мне негде хранить весь собранный урожай, – подумал он. 18 – Вот что я сделаю, – решил он тогда, – я снесу мои хранилища и построю большие, в них будет достаточно места для моего зерна и другого имущества. 19 Тогда я смогу сказать себе: теперь у тебя полно добра на много лет. Отдыхай, ешь, пей, веселись». 20 Но Бог сказал ему: «Глупец! Сегодня же ночью твою жизнь возьмут у тебя. Кому достанется все, что ты приготовил?» 21 Так будет с каждым, кто копит богатство для себя, но не приобретает богатства для Бога.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
Lucas 12:16-21
16 E propôs-lhes uma parábola, dizendo: a herdade de um homem rico tinha produzido com abundância. 17 E arrazoava ele entre si, dizendo: Que farei? Não tenho onde recolher os meus frutos. 18 E disse: Farei isto: derribarei os meus celeiros, e edificarei outros maiores, e ali recolherei todas as minhas novidades e os meus bens; 19 e direi à minha alma: alma, tens em depósito muitos bens, para muitos anos; descansa, come, bebe e folga. 20 Mas Deus lhe disse: Louco, esta noite te pedirão a tua alma, e o que tens preparado para quem será? 21 Assim é aquele que para si ajunta tesouros e não é rico para com Deus.
 

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Luka 12:16-21
16 Kisha akawaambia mfano, “Shamba la tajiri mmoja lilizaa sana. 17 Akawaza moyoni mwake, ‘Nifanye nini? Maana sina mahali pa kuweka mavuno yangu.’ 18 Kisha akasema, ‘Nitafanya hivi: nitabomoa maghala yangu na kujenga maghala makubwa zaidi na huko nitaweka mavuno yangu yote na vitu vyangu. 19 Na nitasema moy oni, ‘Hakika nina bahati! Ninayo mali ya kunitosha kwa miaka mingi. Sasa nitapumzika: nile, ninywe na kustarehe.’ 20 Lakini Mungu akamwambia, ‘Mjinga wewe! Usiku huu huu utakufa! Sasa hivyo vitu ulivyojiwekea vitakuwa vya nani?’ 21 Hivi ndivyo itakavy okuwa kwa mtu ye yote anayehangaika kujikusanyia utajiri duniani lakini si tajiri mbinguni kwa Mungu
 

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ﻟﻮﻗﺎ 12:16-21
16 ثُمَّ رَوَى لَهُمْ هَذِهِ القِصَّةَ: «كانَ لِرَجُلٍ غَنِيٍّ أرْضٌ أنتَجَتْ مَحصُولاً وَفِيراً، 17 فَفَكَّرَ فِي نَفسِهِ: ‹ماذا أفعَلُ يا تُرَى؟ إذْ لَيسَ عِندِي مَكانٌ أخزِنُ فِيهِ مَحاصِيلِي؟›

18 «فَقالَ: ‹هَذا ما سَأفعَلُهُ: سَأهدِمُ مَخازِنِي وَأبنِي مَخازِنَ أكبَرَ مِنها، وَسَأخزِنُ كُلَّ حُبُوبِي وَخَيراتِي فِيها 19 وَأقولُ: لَكِ يا نَفسِي خَيراتٌ وَفِيرَةٌ، سَتَدُومُ سَنَواتٍ كَثِيرَةً، فَاطْمَئِنِّي وَتَمَتَّعِي!›
20 «فَقالَ لَهُ اللهُ: ‹أيُّها الأحمَقُ! سَتَنتَهِي حَياتُكَ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيلَةِ، فَلِمَنْ تَصِيرُ الأشياءُ الَّتِي أعدَدْتَها؟›
21 «هَكَذا تَكُونُ حالُ مَنْ يَخزِنُ كُنُوزاً لِنَفسِهِ، دُونَ أنْ يَكُونَ غَنِيّاً بِاللهِ.»

See also

A voice from Zambia & Malawi about the Parable of the Good Samaritan!  
An african orthodox christian voice about the Parable of the Sower
Orthodox Church & Capitalism: Orthodox Fathers of Church on poverty, wealth and social justice
Is capitalism compatible with Orthodox Christianity?
Grace and “the Inverted Pyramid”

Κυριακή, 19 Νοεμβρίου 2017

New Martyr fr Daniel Sysoev († 19.11.2009) - “The warriors of Christ are not killed, but crowned”!...

 
Father Daniel Sysoev carried out his missionary activity among Moslems [our note: and Protestants, Pentecostals, Paganists etc]. His Evangelical preaching was very successful: He converted and baptized many people; he received death-threats in response. His answer to such threats was to preach Christ with still greater zeal. Therefore his death is a Christian sacrifice for the sake of the great cause to which he felt called by Jesus Christ. Such a death is an open and manifest victory, because “warriors for Christ are not killed, but crowned” (St Cyprian of Carthage, hieromartyr. Epistle 66) [from here].

New Martyr fr Daniel Sysoev († 19.11.2009)


St Cyprian of Carthage
On the Murder of Father Daniil Sysoev

Father Daniil Has Gone from us to God as a Confessor

Fr. Daniel Sysoev: “To Make the Whole World Love Christ”

As I find you, So Shall I Judge You

Fr. Daniel's Autobiography and the Interview with Him on the Occasion of the Opening of the Missionary Centre

Fr. Daniel Sysoev: holy icons & hymns


Памяти отца Даниила Сысоева. Катехон-ТВ (выпуск 30) 

İlahiyatçı ve İman İkrarcısı, Şehit Peder Daniel Sysoev (1974–2009)


Please, see also:

From Herod to ISIS through Christ: No Record of Retribution! (& a lesson from the martyrdom of the African Saint Cyprian of Carthage)

The Orthodox Christian sentiment regarding the persecutions of Christians by Islamists 

A Christian perspective on Islam 
 

From Islam to Christianity: To our brethren who converted from Islam to Protestantism or Roman Catholicism
 

From Islam to Christianity: Saints in the Way to the Lihgt
 


Σάββατο, 18 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Malaria, Poverty & Wars


This is a part from this article about malaria.
 
History

Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
 
Although the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in existence for 50,000–100,000 years, the population size of the parasite did not increase until about 10,000 years ago, concurrently with advances in agriculture[132] and the development of human settlements. Close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparum malaria may have originated in gorillas.[133]
References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history.[134] Hippocrates described periodic fevers, labelling them tertian, quartan, subtertian and quotidian.[135] The Roman Columella associated the disease with insects from swamps.[135] Malaria may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire,[136] and was so pervasive in Rome that it was known as the "Roman fever".[137] Several regions in ancient Rome were considered at-risk for the disease because of the favourable conditions present for malaria vectors. This included areas such as southern Italy, the island of Sardinia, the Pontine Marshes, the lower regions of coastal Etruria and the city of Rome along the Tiber River. The presence of stagnant water in these places was preferred by mosquitoes for breeding grounds. Irrigated gardens, swamp-like grounds, runoff from agriculture, and drainage problems from road construction led to the increase of standing water.[138]

British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
 
The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria—"bad air"; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland.[139] The term first appeared in the English literature about 1829.[135] Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America,[140] where it is no longer endemic,[141] though imported cases do occur.[142]
Scientific studies on malaria made their first significant advance in 1880, when Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran—a French army doctor working in the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria—observed parasites inside the red blood cells of infected people for the first time. He, therefore, proposed that malaria is caused by this organism, the first time a protist was identified as causing disease.[143] For this and later discoveries, he was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. A year later, Carlos Finlay, a Cuban doctor treating people with yellow fever in Havana, provided strong evidence that mosquitoes were transmitting disease to and from humans.[144] This work followed earlier suggestions by Josiah C. Nott,[145] and work by Sir Patrick Manson, the "father of tropical medicine", on the transmission of filariasis.[146]

Chinese traditional Chinese medicine researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on antimalarial drug artemisin.
 
In April 1894, a Scottish physician Sir Ronald Ross visited Sir Patrick Manson at his house on Queen Anne Street, London. This visit was the start of four years of collaboration and fervent research that culminated in 1897 when Ross, who was working in the Presidency General Hospital in Calcutta, proved the complete life-cycle of the malaria parasite in mosquitoes. He thus proved that the mosquito was the vector for malaria in humans by showing that certain mosquito species transmit malaria to birds. He isolated malaria parasites from the salivary glands of mosquitoes that had fed on infected birds.[147] For this work, Ross received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Medicine. After resigning from the Indian Medical Service, Ross worked at the newly established Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and directed malaria-control efforts in Egypt, Panama, Greece and Mauritius.[148] The findings of Finlay and Ross were later confirmed by a medical board headed by Walter Reed in 1900. Its recommendations were implemented by William C. Gorgas in the health measures undertaken during construction of the Panama Canal. This public-health work saved the lives of thousands of workers and helped develop the methods used in future public-health campaigns against the disease.[149]

Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisin
 
The first effective treatment for malaria came from the bark of cinchona tree, which contains quinine. This tree grows on the slopes of the Andes, mainly in Peru. The indigenous peoples of Peru made a tincture of cinchona to control fever. Its effectiveness against malaria was found and the Jesuits introduced the treatment to Europe around 1640; by 1677, it was included in the London Pharmacopoeia as an antimalarial treatment.[150] It was not until 1820 that the active ingredient, quinine, was extracted from the bark, isolated and named by the French chemists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou.[151][152]
Quinine became the predominant malarial medication until the 1920s when other medications began to be developed. In the 1940s, chloroquine replaced quinine as the treatment of both uncomplicated and severe malaria until resistance supervened, first in Southeast Asia and South America in the 1950s and then globally in the 1980s.[153]
The medicinal value of Artemisia annua has been used by Chinese herbalists in traditional Chinese medicines for 2,000 years. In 1596, Li Shizhen recommended tea made from qinghao specifically to treat malaria symptoms in his "Compendium of Materia Medica". Artemisinins, discovered by Chinese scientist Tu Youyou and colleagues in the 1970s from the plant Artemisia annua, became the recommended treatment for P. falciparum malaria, administered in combination with other antimalarials as well as in severe disease.[154] Tu says she was influenced by a traditional Chinese herbal medicine source, The Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency Treatments, written in 340 by Ge Hong.[155] For her work on malaria, Tu Youyou received the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[156]
Plasmodium vivax was used between 1917 and the 1940s for malariotherapy—deliberate injection of malaria parasites to induce a fever to combat certain diseases such as tertiary syphilis. In 1927, the inventor of this technique, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries. The technique was dangerous, killing about 15% of patients, so it is no longer in use.[157]

U.S. Marines with malaria in a rough field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
 
The first pesticide used for indoor residual spraying was DDT.[158] Although it was initially used exclusively to combat malaria, its use quickly spread to agriculture. In time, pest control, rather than disease control, came to dominate DDT use, and this large-scale agricultural use led to the evolution of resistant mosquitoes in many regions. The DDT resistance shown by Anopheles mosquitoes can be compared to antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria. During the 1960s, awareness of the negative consequences of its indiscriminate use increased, ultimately leading to bans on agricultural applications of DDT in many countries in the 1970s.[75] Before DDT, malaria was successfully eliminated or controlled in tropical areas like Brazil and Egypt by removing or poisoning the breeding grounds of the mosquitoes or the aquatic habitats of the larva stages, for example by applying the highly toxic arsenic compound Paris Green to places with standing water.[159]
Malaria vaccines have been an elusive goal of research. The first promising studies demonstrating the potential for a malaria vaccine were performed in 1967 by immunizing mice with live, radiation-attenuated sporozoites, which provided significant protection to the mice upon subsequent injection with normal, viable sporozoites. Since the 1970s, there has been a considerable effort to develop similar vaccination strategies for humans.[160] The first vaccine, called RTS,S, was approved by European regulators in 2015.[161]
 
Society and culture

Economic impact
 
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
 
Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty: some evidence suggests that it is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.[9][10] Although tropical regions are most affected, malaria's furthest influence reaches into some temperate zones that have extreme seasonal changes. The disease has been associated with major negative economic effects on regions where it is widespread. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was a major factor in the slow economic development of the American southern states.[162]
A comparison of average per capita GDP in 1995, adjusted for parity of purchasing power, between countries with malaria and countries without malaria gives a fivefold difference ($1,526 USD versus $8,268 USD). In the period 1965 to 1990, countries where malaria was common had an average per capita GDP that increased only 0.4% per year, compared to 2.4% per year in other countries.[163]
Poverty can increase the risk of malaria since those in poverty do not have the financial capacities to prevent or treat the disease. In its entirety, the economic impact of malaria has been estimated to cost Africa US$12 billion every year. The economic impact includes costs of health care, working days lost due to sickness, days lost in education, decreased productivity due to brain damage from cerebral malaria, and loss of investment and tourism.[11] The disease has a heavy burden in some countries, where it may be responsible for 30–50% of hospital admissions, up to 50% of outpatient visits, and up to 40% of public health spending.[164]

Child with malaria in Ethiopia

Cerebral malaria is one of the leading causes of neurological disabilities in African children.[114] Studies comparing cognitive functions before and after treatment for severe malarial illness continued to show significantly impaired school performance and cognitive abilities even after recovery.[112] Consequently, severe and cerebral malaria have far-reaching socioeconomic consequences that extend beyond the immediate effects of the disease.[165]

Counterfeit and substandard drugs

Sophisticated counterfeits have been found in several Asian countries such as Cambodia,[166] China,[167] Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, and are an important cause of avoidable death in those countries.[168] The WHO said that studies indicate that up to 40% of artesunate-based malaria medications are counterfeit, especially in the Greater Mekong region and have established a rapid alert system to enable information about counterfeit drugs to be rapidly reported to the relevant authorities in participating countries.[169] There is no reliable way for doctors or lay people to detect counterfeit drugs without help from a laboratory. Companies are attempting to combat the persistence of counterfeit drugs by using new technology to provide security from source to distribution.[170]
Another clinical and public health concern is the proliferation of substandard antimalarial medicines resulting from inappropriate concentration of ingredients, contamination with other drugs or toxic impurities, poor quality ingredients, poor stability and inadequate packaging.[171] A 2012 study demonstrated that roughly one-third of antimalarial medications in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa failed chemical analysis, packaging analysis, or were falsified.[172]

War
 
World War II poster
 
Throughout history, the contraction of malaria has played a prominent role in the fates of government rulers, nation-states, military personnel, and military actions.[173] In 1910, Nobel Prize in Medicine-winner Ronald Ross (himself a malaria survivor), published a book titled The Prevention of Malaria that included a chapter titled "The Prevention of Malaria in War." The chapter's author, Colonel C. H. Melville, Professor of Hygiene at Royal Army Medical College in London, addressed the prominent role that malaria has historically played during wars: "The history of malaria in war might almost be taken to be the history of war itself, certainly the history of war in the Christian era. ... It is probably the case that many of the so-called camp fevers, and probably also a considerable proportion of the camp dysentery, of the wars of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were malarial in origin."[174]
Malaria was the most significant health hazard encountered by U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II, where about 500,000 men were infected.[175] According to Joseph Patrick Byrne, "Sixty thousand American soldiers died of malaria during the African and South Pacific campaigns."[176]
Significant financial investments have been made to procure existing and create new anti-malarial agents. During World War I and World War II, inconsistent supplies of the natural anti-malaria drugs cinchona bark and quinine prompted substantial funding into research and development of other drugs and vaccines. American military organizations conducting such research initiatives include the Navy Medical Research Center, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases of the US Armed Forces.[177]
Additionally, initiatives have been founded such as Malaria Control in War Areas (MCWA), established in 1942, and its successor, the Communicable Disease Center (now known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC) established in 1946. According to the CDC, MCWA "was established to control malaria around military training bases in the southern United States and its territories, where malaria was still problematic".[178]

Eradication efforts
 
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
 
Several notable attempts are being made to eliminate the parasite from sections of the world, or to eradicate it worldwide. In 2006, the organization Malaria No More set a public goal of eliminating malaria from Africa by 2015, and the organization plans to dissolve if that goal is accomplished.[179] Several malaria vaccines are in clinical trials, which are intended to provide protection for children in endemic areas and reduce the speed of transmission of the disease. As of 2012, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has distributed 230 million insecticide-treated nets intended to stop mosquito-borne transmission of malaria.[180] The U.S.-based Clinton Foundation has worked to manage demand and stabilize prices in the artemisinin market.[181] Other efforts, such as the Malaria Atlas Project, focus on analysing climate and weather information required to accurately predict the spread of malaria based on the availability of habitat of malaria-carrying parasites.[122] The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) was formed in 2012, "to provide strategic advice and technical input to WHO on all aspects of malaria control and elimination".[182] In November 2013, WHO and the malaria vaccine funders group set a goal to develop vaccines designed to interrupt malaria transmission with the long-term goal of malaria eradication.[183]
Malaria has been successfully eliminated or greatly reduced in certain areas. Malaria was once common in the United States and southern Europe, but vector control programs, in conjunction with the monitoring and treatment of infected humans, eliminated it from those regions. Several factors contributed, such as the draining of wetland breeding grounds for agriculture and other changes in water management practices, and advances in sanitation, including greater use of glass windows and screens in dwellings.[184] Malaria was eliminated from most parts of the USA in the early 20th century by such methods, and the use of the pesticide DDT and other means eliminated it from the remaining pockets in the South in the 1950s as part of the National Malaria Eradication Program.[185] Bill Gates has said that he thinks global eradication is possible by 2040.[186]

Research

The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) initiative was a consultative process to identify which areas of research and development (R&D) needed to be addressed for the worldwide eradication of malaria.[187][188]

Vaccine

A vaccine against malaria called RTS,S, was approved by European regulators in 2015.[161] It is undergoing pilot trials in select countries in 2016.
Immunity (or, more accurately, tolerance) to P. falciparum malaria does occur naturally, but only in response to years of repeated infection.[37] An individual can be protected from a P. falciparum infection if they receive about a thousand bites from mosquitoes that carry a version of the parasite rendered non-infective by a dose of X-ray irradiation.[189] The highly polymorphic nature of many P. falciparum proteins results in significant challenges to vaccine design. Vaccine candidates that target antigens on gametes, zygotes, or ookinetes in the mosquito midgut aim to block the transmission of malaria. These transmission-blocking vaccines induce antibodies in the human blood; when a mosquito takes a blood meal from a protected individual, these antibodies prevent the parasite from completing its development in the mosquito.[190] Other vaccine candidates, targeting the blood-stage of the parasite's life cycle, have been inadequate on their own.[191] For example, SPf66 was tested extensively in areas where the disease is common in the 1990s, but trials showed it to be insufficiently effective.[192]